Hydraulic directional control valve components-Directional valve Body parts

Hydraulic directional control valve

Hydraulic directional control valve is used to control actuators and also their directions. There are several types of directional valve (DCV valve) in hydraulic system according to their applications and construction. To know more about hydraulic directional valve types just click read more. Directional control valve is also known as spool control valve. Basic hydraulic pneumatic system components Types of hydraulic pump Hydraulic cylinder speed calculator Hydraulic directional control valve types Basic pneumatic system

Directional control valve can be classified by their coil type, Single coil and double coil. In a single coil directional valve, one coil is used in the valve and when it is actuated and De-actuated by electrical pulse signal in a moment the actuators complete a full cycle. As an example, when single coil valve is actuated and de-actuated in a moment the actuator moves backward and go forward and clamp the job.

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There are two coils in double coil directional valve. When right side coil is actuated, cylinder moves forward until the coil is de-actuated. When left side coil is actuated cylinder go backward. Usually three types of coils are used in hydraulic system, DC-24volt, AC-110 volt and AC-220 volt.

Single coil Directional control valve working diagram
Single coil directional control valve

Directional control valve components

Hydraulic Directional control valve consist of Coil, coil nut, Tube, Spool, Spring, key, Washer, Electrical connection box and block. A YUKEN directional valve components/body parts is shown in the picture below
Directional control valve

Coil nut

Coil nuts are made with plastic. Coils are hold by the plastic nut. Its normally open if the nut turns into counter clockwise direction.

Coil nut


Electrical power are connected to the coils and it creates magnetic field thus spools are pulled by the magnetic field. And if the coil is De-energized, no magnetic field is created and the spool return to the default position.

Directional control valve coil


Two pieces tube are connected horizontally both side of port block. Tube consists of a small spring, key and O-ring. Spring that forces the spool with the help of the key in center position if coil is de-energized. O-rings prevents the leakages of the oil.

Directional valve tube



Blocks are manufactured by casting and after casting it is machining with high precision machines. Spool assembly are stay inside the block. Spool are guided by two T shape washers in both side of the block. And other two pieces flat washer forces the T shape washer to moves spool forward and backward.There are several ports are located bottom of the block and it is marked by A,B,P,T sign.

A and B = Cylinder connecting port
P = pressure port
T = Tank port

Directional valve block


Spool is part directional valve that helps to changes the direction of fluid. Its moves forward and backward inside the block. Spool always exists in center position or default position if both coils is de-energized.
Directional valve spool

Electrical connection box

It contains circuit of the coil and coil connections are divided from the electrical connection box.

Directional valve electrical connection box

 Directional control valves 4/3-Way

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