Car suspension is the system that lifts the car on wheels and allows the relative movement between the car and the wheel. Car suspension system is combination of dampers, springs, tires and mechanical linkages to connect the car with its wheels. The comfort and safety of the passengers within the car is dependent on the suspension system. So, suspension system isolates the vehicle from the road disturbances.
Car suspension works by damping and reducing the effect of the road dist
urbance. They support the car on the wheels and maintain the tire contact with the road. The spring absorbs the disturbing energy and damper controls the recoil.
Suspension system functions
- Prevent vehicle stability from rolling or pitching during motion.
- Prevent the road shocks affecting to the vehicle body.
- Provide ease of driving and controlling the vehicle.
- Reduce unwanted vibration.
Suspension systems have three types depending upon the level of damping and control they offer:
Passive Suspension System
Passive suspension system are the combination of springs and dampers to provide uniform damping ability to the vehicle.
Semi-active Suspension System
Semi-active suspension system is an upgrade to passive suspension system that incorporates the actuators to vary the damping force of the semi-active damper.
Active Suspension System
In active suspension system, the damping characteristics are controlled actively, and the damper provide required damping to meet the requirements of better road grip, suspension capability and ease of the passenger.
Suspension systems have two types depending upon extent of freedom:
In dependent suspension system, both the wheels on a solid axle are connected to each other. Now if there comes any disturbance due to bump on the road any wheel will affect the other wheel and damping will be combined. Heavy duty vehicles usually have dependent suspension systems because the shock bearing ability of the dependent suspension is greater than the independent suspension.
In independent suspension system, all the wheels work independently. Disturbing force on one will does not affect the other wheel because the wheels are not rigidly connected with each other. They have less weight and offer better steering. These days car manufacturers prefer independent suspension for providing better road grip and comfort of the passengers. Independent suspension further has following types.
- Parallelogram type suspension
- Front-end suspension using torsion bar
- Struck and link type suspension
- Trailing arm front suspension
- Sliding type suspension
- Vertical guide suspension
- Single I-beam front suspension
- Twin I-beam suspension
In Semi-independent system, wheels are independent to have relative movement, but their position affects each other. Twist beam suspension system are the example of Semi-independent system.
Depending upon the front or rear wheel drive system there are two types of the suspension systems:
Front end suspension
In front end suspension, the wheels swivel at different angles in addition to the relative up and down motion with respect to the car. Front end suspension is complex than rear suspension system.
There are two types of Front-end suspension system is here:
- Independent front suspension system
- Rigid axel font suspension system.
The purpose of the rear end suspension is similar to that of front-end suspension. The construction methodology is different from the front end. It prevents the vehicle body ground contact and keeps it on the lower frame of the car. It helps to maintain the contact of the tires with the road.
Rear suspension has following three types:
- Longitudinal leaf spring rear end suspension
- Transverse leaf spring rear end suspension
- Coil spring rear end suspension