What is HVAC system? Types of HVAC system? Components of HVAC system

HVAC is the combination of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. HVAC is the system that maintains the required surrounding environmental conditions for the desired area.Components of hvac system

It tempers the local conditions either by heat addition or cooling. The flow of clean air helps to maintain the desired humidity within the required area.

HVAC Systems are classified in two categories

Centralized air conditioning system

In a centralized air conditioning system, the air is conditioned at one central point in the building and then sent through ducts to the other parts of the building. They provide easy to maintain consistent temperature environment in different rooms and it has less maintenance difficulty problems. It is cheaper to maintain a centralized HVAC system.

Decentralized or local air conditioning system

Decentralized or local air conditioning system is the opposite of the central HVAC system. In it, multiple units are used to meet HVAC requirements instead of a single centralized system. Its lowers the cost and increase the control of the heating, ventilation and cooling as it is easy to maintain different temperatures at different places. But it increases the maintenance points. It has a benefit that the whole system will not collapse if just one-unit stop working which is the case in the centralized HVAC system.

Types of HVAC systems available today are:

  1. Split and window AC
  2. Ductless Split Systems
  3. Packaged heating & air conditioning system combined
  4. Geothermal HVAC Systems

An HVAC system consists of various components. Some of the main components are discussed below:


Thermostat is used to control the temperature within the required area. It senses the temperature of the surrounding and regulates the HVAC system to obtain the desired level of conditioning.

Condenser unit

The purpose of a condenser unit in HVAC system is to condense the high-temperature refrigerant gas into liquid stage to be sent to the evaporator coil for cooling purpose.

Evaporator coil (Components of HVAC system)

The purpose of evaporator coil in HVAC system is to cool the external air using the condensed refrigerant from the condenser. It is used to evaporate the liquid refrigerant present within the coils which in turn cools the incoming air.

Furnace (Combustion Chamber) Components of HVAC system

Furnace is the most important part of HVAC system. The purpose of furnace in HVAC system is to produce heat. Furnace create heat in many ways depending on application of uses and design. As an example, Gas furnace, Oil furnace and Electric furnace. The heating is usually produced by the combustion of fuels or gas.

Heat Exchanger

The purpose of  heat exchanger in HVAC system is to heat the incoming air in winters. It is located with the furnace part where it exchanges heat with the cool atmospheric air to deliver air at required temperature by the thermostat.

Blower (Components of HVAC system)

The purpose of blower is to suck air from the atmosphere to and give it kinetic energy so that it can move with the ducts easily.

Duct system

Duct system distribute air to the required location from one part to the other. They have usually rectangular, cylindrical and oval shape.


Vents are present at the ends of the ducts to deliver conditioned air to the required rooms and places.

Diffusers Components of hvac systemts of HVAC system

Diffusers are used to reduce the flow of the air by hindering their path. They may be installed within the duct work or at the end of the ducts.

Application Of HVAC

  1. Commercial
  2. Residential
  3. Industrial
  4. Hospital
  5. Pharmaceutical’s
  6. Educational institutes.
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