Definition of pumps-All types of pumps definitions-Advantages and disadvantages

types of pumps


Pump is a device that is widely used in industrial and automobile’s applications. There are many types of pumps classified according to their applications and construction.types of pumps

Definition of pumps

The device which has some rotating components or forward and reverse components like piston to flow the liquids with pressure and no pressure from one place to another is called pump. Hydraulic pump is using as to creates flow and pressure for hydraulic system. It is driven by electric motor or engine.

(A) Positive displacement pump

Two types of positive displacement pump- A) Reciprocating pump B) Rotary pump. The listed pump is below is positive displacement pump.
  1. Gear pump
  2. Vane pump
  3. Piston pump
  4. screw pump

(B) Fixed displacement pump

A fixed amount of fluid displace by every stroke of the motor and pump has a set of flow rates. Fixed displacement pump is used for constant pressure and flow. Usually these types of pump construction is simple and less expensive.
Piston pump and vane pump is both fixed and variable types of pump
  1. Gear pump
  2. Vane pump
  3. Piston pump

(C) Variable displacement pump

Variable displacement pump can produce variable flow and pressure and can be changed by the operator. And these pumps are energy efficient. Pressure and flow is synchronous with the loads.
  1. Vane pump
  2. Piston pump

All types of pumps list

-Gear pump.
  • External gear pump
  • Internal gear pump
-Vane pump.
  • Fixed displacement vane pump – I) Balanced vane pump II) Unbalanced vane pump.
  • Variable displacement vane pump

By delivery type:

  • Single vane pump
  • Double vane pump
-Piston pump.
  • Axial piston pump.
  • Radial piston pump
-Centrifugal pump.
-Screw pump.
-Plunger pump.
-Diaphragm pump.

All types of pumps definitions-Advantages and disadvantages

Gear Pump

Gear Pump
The pump that creates suction by its gear mesh to input and forces the fluid toward the output is called gear pump. Gear pump can provide pressurized flow to the hydraulic system. And gear pump is a fixed displacement pump.


1. Gear pump can transfer high viscosity fluid easily.
2. Ability to make high pressure.
3. Design and construction is easy.
4. Cheap price.
5. Low cavitation.
6. Simple operation.
7. Bi-rotational operation


1. Can be damage for cavitation.
2. Noisy type.
3. Not suitable for low viscous fluids.
4. Maintenance is not convenient

Piston pump

Piston pump

Piston pump is the type of positive displacement pump and its developed pressure with reciprocating piston. And fluids or gases delivered by the suction and discharge valves from inlet to outlet port.
  • A piston pump minimum flow rate 5 Gpm
  • And maximum flow rate is 700 Gpm (Gallon per minute)
  • And pressure is between 50 to 14500 Psi.
  • Typically, piston pump used in heavy machinery.


  1. No pressure losses in long distance.
  2. Can generate high pressure.
  3. Flow rates does not effects in pressure.
  4. Piston pump can be operate easily in high viscosity fluid.
  5. Adjustable pressure controlling system.


  1. Maintenance cost is very high
  2. Complex design

    Axial piston pump

(i) Axial piston pump is designed with some pistons around the cylinder block. When the driven shaft rotates the axial pistons then fluid enters during piston expand and discharge when piston contract this is how axial piston pump works.
Radial piston pump

(i) Radial piston pump has several pistons inside the rotating block and it is rotated by the eccentric drive shaft. When the eccentric shaft starts rotating then some pistons moving forward to the center and some other backward. When pistons move forward to the center then fluid enter into the piston and when pistons backward the pressurized fluid go out to the system this is how radial piston pump work.

Vane Pump

Vane Pump

Vane pump have some vanes that is inside the radial slots and these radial slots and vanes rotate by the shaft. Vanes can extend and retract while rotating the rotor and when vanes are rotating with extend, fluids enters to inlet and during retract the vanes fluid discharge to outlet. Typically, vane pump is used for lower pressure system.


  1. Vane pump produce low noise.
  2. Capable to make high flow rates.
  3. Approximately vane pump maximum pressure is about 214 kg/cm2


  1. Not good performance for high viscosity oil.
  2. Not used in high pressure system.
  3. Require good filtration in hydraulic system.

Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump

A centrifugal force is applied to the rotating impeller to move fluids to outwards with force is called centrifugal pump. There are main four part of the centrifugal pumps are Casing,Impeller,suction pipe and delivery pipe.Usually Centrifugal pumps are used in power plant, general water supply and agriculture work.


1. Long life time & High speed
2. Speed can adjust via motor/engine rotation.
3. Safety valve is not required for centrifugal pump.
4. Small in size and low manufacturing cost.
5. Easy to maintenance.


1. Can not create high pressure.
2. Not good performance for high viscosity fluids.
3. High temperature fluids are risk for cavitation.

Screw Pump

One or more screws that rotates inside the cylindrical cavity and moves fluid with forces is called screw pump.Fluid enters to the suction side and displace to the discharge side via rotating screw mesh.

Typically, two types screw pump are use:-

  1. Double screw pump : Double screw or two screw pump have two inter-meshing screws inside the cavity that are rotating by the gear.
  2. Three screw pump : Three screw pump have one driving screw and two driven screw that helps to move fluid from suction to discharge port. Screw pumps are commonly used to transfer high viscous fluids.


  • Long time service life.
  • Easy to maintenance.
  • Capability to handle high range of pressure and flow.
  • Less mechanical vibration.
  • Suction characteristics is very good.
  • Self priming method


  • Maintenance cost is very high and time consuming.
  • High friction losses
  • Higher speed damages the pump housing.

Plunger Pump
Plunger Pump

A crankshaft that moves the plunger forward and backward for the pumping. During this pumping the suction and pressure valve opens for displacing the fluid with pressure.


  1. Plunger pump can handle high pressure is up to 3,000 bar.
  2. Capability to control high precision and flexible speed.
  3. Can run 24 hours a day and 8000 hours within a year.


  1. Use only for high pressure areas
  2. Maintenance cost is expensive
  3. Complex design
  4. Comparable price is high

Diaphragm pump

Diaphragm pump is a positive displacement pump that use a reciprocating movement of Diaphragm and displace fluid by opening and closing of suction and discharge valves.

Diaphragm pump can transfer aggressive chemicals,medium,low and high viscosity fluids, sugar,food processing residual,oil sludge and industrial fluid and much more.


  1. Can handle corrosive or non-corrosive liquids
  2. Dry running capabilities
  3. Self priming
  4. Can transfer high viscous liquids
  5. Can produce pressure up to 1200 bar
  6. Constant pumping efficiency
  7. Easy to install


  1. Not energy efficient
  2. Produce pulse type flow
  3. Not uses in high pressure areas

Difference between Gear pump and centrifugal pump

              Gear pump     Centrifugal pump
1. Positive displacement pump     1. Non-positive displacement pump
2. Uses for high viscous fluids     2. Uses for low viscous fluids
3. Efficiency is very high     3. Efficiency is very low
4. Self-priming     4. Need priming
5. Reversible     5. Not reversible
6. Uses gear for fluid transfer     6. Uses impeller for fluid transfer
7. Can produce high pressure     7. Can produce low pressure
8. Comparable price is low     8. Comparable price is high
9. Simple design     9. Complex design

types of pumps

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1/Post a Comment/Comments

  1. Thank you for providing a detailed explanation of the various pumps, highlighting their benefits and drawbacks, and outlining the distinctions between gear and centrifugal pumps.


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